TERMINOLOGIES FOR THE STUDY OF BLOOD STAINS

Sorry. The english version is not properly translated yet! We area working on it according ASB 033/2017.

  • Drip pattern. A stain that results from a liquid that drips into another liquid, at least one of which is blood;

  • Free Falling Volume (VQL) . It is the stain created by the fall of a greater volume of blood. When it forms many spines, it is also called a splash ;

  • Impact angle . Angle (alpha) at which a given drop of blood impacts a given surface;

  • Directional angle . Or rotational angle. It is o angle (gamma) between the line that cuts the stain on its length axis at a given reference line on the surface.

  • Convergence area. The dimensional space through which the directions of impact patches can be crossed in order to determine the location of the impact;

  • Origin area. It is the three-dimensional space through which the trajectory of the drops of blood that formed the profile can be used to determine the location of the impact.

  • Backspatter. Bloodstain profile generated by drops of blood that can be produced during projectile entry injury;

  • PMS Initials that identify the words Profiles (or Patterns) of Bloodstains;

  • Clot. Gelatinous mass formed by a complex clotting mechanism involving red cells, platelets, fibrogen and other clotting factors;

  • Perimeter stain. Or skeletonization effect. Altered bloodstain consisting of intact edges and partially or fully removed central area;

  • fog effect. Profile of bloodstains resulting from blood in a spray form of micro droplets due to a given applied force;

  • Impact energy. It is the energy with which a given volume of blood reaches a given surface;

  • Accompanying drop . It is a small drop of blood produced as a by-product of a drop of blood during its formation;

  • Blood drop . It is a unitary element of blood volume with a hemispherical or spherical shape, which is in formation near the blood source or in a trajectory in the air;

  • Drip trail. Profile of bloodstains resulting from the movement of the drip source between two points;

  • Accumulation stain.  Stains caused by the accumulation of blood. They can be blood-on-blood, puddle, or saturation types.

  • Altered stain. A stain with characteristics of the occurrence of physical changes due to some external action. It is usually caused by contact, shade, dilution or insects, although it is not limited to these three forms of alteration only;

  • Insect stain . Blood stains resulting from alteration by insect activities;

  • Contact stain . Stains caused by the contact of a surface containing blood with another surface. They can be transferred or changed by contact;

  • diluted stain. Blood stain altered by dilution of some fluid;

  • Rubbed stain or   dragged stain. Blood stain altered with lateral movement by contact with another surface;

  • Dripped stain.  Or drip stain. Bloodstain formed by drops of blood that have been dissociated from the blood source mainly due to gravitational force;

  • Stain transferred with drag . Or past stain. Stain caused by lateral movement of a surface containing blood on another surface;

  • Main stain. Blood stain from which satellite stains originate;

  • Bloodstain. Deposition of blood on a given surface;

  • Blood stains on blood . Accumulation stains caused when blood in the form of drops or larger volumes make a trajectory that reaches a surface that already contained blood. They are divided into drip accumulation or Free Falling Volume accumulation-VQL;

  • Satellite spot. Smaller bloodstain resulting from a fluid dynamic disturbance in the main smear;

  • Saturation stain.  Blood stain resulting from accumulation of blood on an absorbent surface;

  • Transferred stain. Stain caused on a surface due to contact with another surface containing blood;

  • Puddle stain . Blood stain resulting from the accumulation of blood on a surface;

  • Spatter spots . Bloodstains generated by drops of blood that have been dissociated from the blood source due to an additional force to the gravitational pull. They can be in the form of splashes or projection;

  • Generation mechanism . It is the way in which the detachment of blood from its original source occurs, thus causing blood stain(s) with characteristic shape, distribution and sizes;

  • Cast off profile. Or Release Profile. Profile of bloodstains resulting from drops of blood that detach from an object due to its movement;

  • “Stopping” cast-off profile . Or interrupt profile. Profile of bloodstains resulting from drops of blood that detach from an object due to its rapid deceleration;

  • Run-off stain . Blood stain resulting from the movement of a volume of blood on a surface due to the force of gravity or the movement of that surface;

  • Expiration Profile . Bloodstain profile resulting from drops of blood expelled by the impact of air from the airways or from an injury;

  • Impact profile . Profile of bloodstains resulting from the impact of an object (or air) on liquid blood.

  • Bloodstain profile . A set of bloodstains that indicate by the form, order and distribution the way in which the profile was formed;

  • Projection profile . Bloodstain profile resulting from volume of blood ejected under pressure;

  • Shadow. Absence of blood stain(s) on a given surface resulting from an obstacle no longer positioned on that surface;

  • Shape transfer . It is when a surface containing blood comes into contact with another surface, leaving its full or partial shape on the latter.

Source: extracted from the book “Blood Stain Profiles – From the crime scene to the elaboration of the report” by Antonio A. Canelas Neto, ed. Lura, 2017 and ASB Thecnical Report 033/2017 from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Date: 10/26/2020.   

Modification No. 06.