A brief contextualization in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.
Also understand why many countries gives so much importance to this study.
The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is treated as a systematic analysis of blood deposited on a surface. Through its shape, size and distribution, we can infer the mechanism that was necessary for the generation of this (s) stain (s) that, in connection with other elements of the crime scene, can lead to the establishment of what really happened in the place, how it happened, when it happened and even if someone was present during it. The use of this technique is based on scientific principles mainly related to knowledge of fluid mechanics, biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics. In this sense, the BPA technique over the years ended up encompassing the state of the art of traces of bloodstains, also developing applications in many areas as, for example, development of analysis methods and methods of blood enhancement.
The bloodstain pattern analyst must be able to interact with these sciences in order to extract from the bloodstains conclusions that are reliable with what happened. Among the practical results expected in its analysis are, for example, differentiation between homicides, suicides or accidents; victim and criminal positions and movements; evaluation of contradictions in testimonies; selectivity in sampling for DNA tests; differentiation of objects used in a crime; establishing the number of participants in the crime; assistance in the criterion of time of death; route establishment; revelation of new traces; and countless others depending on each case.
Contrary to popular belief, however, this is not a new area of forensic science. The study of bloodstains actually has more than 100 years of history. There are reports of the use of this technique since the Middle Ages and even in older Germanic tribes. However, many researchers consider that the greatest scientific guise in the area actually began in 1895, with research carried out by the Polish Doctor Eduard Piotrowski. Piotrowski had as an experimental method something that nowadays would cause, at the very least, great controversy. He used to hammer live rabbits on the head and then document the behavior of the bloodstains generated by this action.
In a more contemporary era, books, publications, research, meetings and international conferences have been routinely promoted about this knowledge, in addition to the construction of laboratories and research centers. In 1983 was funded the International Association of Bloodstains Analysts (IABPA) and which today has thousands of members in several countries. In 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) took a second major step toward strengthening this study. Created the Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (SWGSTAIN). SWGSTAIN's main objective was to develop doctrines, certifications, analysis methodologies, and standardization of bloodstain nomenclatures. From 2015, the OSAC ( Organization of Scientific Area Committees ), managed by the NIST ( National Institute of Standards and Technology ), assumed the role in standardization in the area, continuing the work of SWGSTAIN.
Through practical results, added by a large amount of scientific production, the study of bloodstains has become exponentially in terms of technology, academic research, and professional training, with emphasis on studies developed in countries such as the United States, Canada, Holland, France, Germany, England, New Zealand and Australia. Given the numerous information extracted from the blood, it is understood that the BPA technique, due to its specificity, speed, effectiveness and low cost in solving crimes, becomes one of the most important techniques in the forensic world. Several institutes have sought to qualify their professionals in this study, realizing that when there is a trace of blood, a good bloodstain pattern analyst can solve an investigation with greater speed and robustness of evidence than traditional methods of investigation without this expertise , thus causing a satisfactory saving of resources and time.
In Brazil there is an absence of strategic policy on the subject, both in the governmental aspect as well as in the institutes of expertise and universities, even in the face of clear statistics showing blood as one of the most frequent traces in the country. Notably, knowledge, awareness of the importance of the topic, systematization, dissemination, standardization, meetings, and structuring of specialized laboratories are lacking. Trying to break paradigms and develop the analysis of bloodstains in a scientific way in our country, therefore, is a great challenge that we are seeking through this site, our training, our book, research in universities and several other actions promoted with our brand. With your support we will certainly take a big step in this direction.
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